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Title:Human Rights Resources for Historians
Date of publishing:July 29, 2010
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Human Rights Resources for Historians

 

 


ACADEMIC FREEDOM | UNIVERSITY AUTONOMY
► United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind (1975) [
E]
Venice Statement on the Right to Enjoy the Benefits of Scientific Progress and Its Applications (2009) [
E]
► Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights (Farida Shaheed), The Right To Enjoy the Benefits of Scientific Progress and Its Applications: Report (2012) [
E]
C
lick also here
► For historians: click also here; for archaeologists: click also here; for archivists: click also here.
See also Basic human rights; Cultural rights.

AMNESTY
► Transitional Justice Institute, The Belfast Guidelines on Amnesty and Accountability (2013) [
E][F][S]

ARCHAEOLOGY
Click here

ARCHIVES
Click here

BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS
Important link: United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law: Historic Archives [
E]
► UN, Charter (1945) [
E][F][S]
► UN, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) (1948) [
E][F][S] → UDHR in 380 languages: click here.
► UN, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) (1966) [E][F][S] & Siracusa Principles (1985) [E]
► UN, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (1966) [
E][F][S] & Limburg Principles (1986) [E], Maastricht Guidelines (1997) [E]
► UN, Substantive Issues Arising in the Implementation of the ICESCR (2001) [
E]
► UN, General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies (2008) vol. 1 [
E][F][S]; vol. 2 [E][F][S]
► Democracy Reporting International, Lawful Restrictions on Civil and Political Rights (2012) [
E]

CONDEMNATIONS, INTERNATIONAL
► Council of Europe, Measures To Dismantle the Heritage of Former Communist Totalitarian Systems, Report (1996) [
E]; Resolution 1096 (1996) [E][F]
—, Need for International Condemnation of Crimes of Totalitarian Communist Regimes, Report (2005) [
E][F]; Resolution 1481 (2006) [E][F]; Reply Committee of Ministers (2006) [E][F]
——, Need for International Condemnation of the Franco Regime, Report (2005) [
E][F]; Recommendation 1736 (2006) [E][F]; Reply Committee of Ministers (2006) [E][F]
——, The Need for International Condemnation of Holodomor in Ukraine in 1932-1933: Motion for a Resolution (2008) [
E][F]
► Council of Europe, Commissioner of Human Rights, "Atrocities in the past must be recognised, documented and learned from - but not distorted or misused for political purposes" (2010) [
E][F][R]
► European Commission (commissioned by ~), Study on How the Memory of Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes in Europe Is Dealt with in the Member States (2010) [
E]
► European Parliament, Commemoration of the Holodomor, the artificial famine in Ukraine (1932-1933): resolution (2008) [
E][F][S]
——, European Conscience And Totalitarianism: Resolution (2009) [
E][F][S]
► Organisation for the Security and Co-operation in Europe, Resolution on Divided Europe Reunited (2009) [Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism][
E][F]

COPYRIGHT
Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works(1886, 1979) [
E][F][S]
► ICESCR, General Comment 17 (2005) [
E]
► Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights (Farida Shaheed), Copyright Policy and the Right to Science and Culture: Report (2014) [
E]
► World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Copyright Treaty (1996) [
E][F][S]
► World Trade Organization (WTO), Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994) [
E][F][S]
► Article 19, The Right to Share: Principles on Freedom of Expression and Copyright in the Digital Age (2013) [
E]
► Centre for Law and Democracy, Reconceptualising Copyright: Adapting the Rules to Respect Freedom of Expression in the Digital Age (2013) [
E]
 
COURTS, STATUTES OF INTERNATIONAL
► International Court of Justice (states), Statute [
E][F][S], Rules of Court (2005) [E][F]
► International Criminal Court (citizens), Statute (1998) [
E][F][S]; Amendment (2010) [E]; Elements of Crimes (2002) [E][F]; Amendment (2010)[E]; Rules of Procedure and Evidence (2002) [E][F]; Regulations of the Court (2004) [E][F]

CULTURAL RIGHTS
► Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights,
——, Cultural Rights: Legal Framework and Thematic Issues: Report: (2010) [
E]
——, Right of Access to, and Enjoyment of, Cultural Heritage: Statement (2010) [
E]; Report (2011) [E]
——, Right To Benefit of Scientific Progress and Its Applications: Report (2012) [
E]
——, Enjoyment of Cultural Rights by Women on an Equal Basis with Men (2012) [
E]
——, Right to Freedom of Artistic Expression and Creation (2013) [
E]
——, Writing & Teaching of History: Statement [
E]; Report (2013) [E][F][S]; Discussion (2014) [E]
——, Memorialization Processes of Events of the Past: Report (2014) [
E]; Discussion (2014) [E]
——, Impact of Commercial Advertising and Marketing Practices on Cultural Rights (2014) [
E]
——, Copyright Law and Policy from the Perspective of Right to Science and Culture: Report (2014) [
E]
——, Patent Rights from the Perspective of Right to Science and Culture: Report (2015) [
E]
——, Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage (2016a) [
E]; (2016b) [E]
——, Fundamentalism, Extremism and Cultural Rights (2017) [
E]
► UNESCO, Convention on the Promotion and Protection of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005) [
E]
Venice Statement on the Right to Enjoy the Benefits of Scientific Progress and Its Applications (2009) [
E]
See also: Heritage.

DEMOCRACY
► Inter-Parliamentary Union, Universal Declaration on Democracy (1997) [
E][F]
► UN Commission on Human Rights, Promoting and Consolidating Democracy: Resolution (2000) [
E]; (2002) [E]
——, Continuing Dialogue on Measures to Promote and Consolidate Democracy: Report (2003) [
E]; Interdependence between Democracy and Human Rights: Report (2005) [E]
► United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights & Inter-Parliamentary Union, Human Rights: Handbook for Parliamentarians (2005) [
E]
► Democracy Reporting International, International Consensus: Essential Elements of Democracy (2011) [
E]
► Centre for Law and Democracy / Democracy Reporting International, International Standards on Transparency and Accountability (2014) [
E]
See also: Website of the Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights [
E]

DISAPPEARANCES
► UN, Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (1992) [
E][F][S]
——, International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (2006) [
E][F][S]
► UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, Compilation of General Comments on the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (2010) [
E]
See also: Truth, Right to the

DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES
► High-Level Group, Declaration of Responsibilities and Human Duties (Valencia 2002) [
E]
► Inter-Action Council, A Universal Declaration of Human Responsibilities (1997) [
E]
► United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Human Rights and Human Responsibilities  (2003) [
E]

EDUCATION
► Human Rights Council, United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training (2011) [
E]
► Global Coalition To Protect Education from Attack, Draft Lucens Guidelines for Protecting Schools and Universities from Military Use during Armed Conflict (2012) [
E][F][S]
See also: Basic Human Rights (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights); Heritage; Humanitarian Law

FORGOTTEN, RIGHT TO BE
See legal cases on the right to be forgotten: click here.
► Article 19, Article 19's Response to Google's Advisory Council (2014) [
E]

FREEDOM OF OPINION & EXPRESSION | ACCESS TO INFORMATION
► UN Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 34 (2011) [
E][F][S]
——, Draft General Comment No. 34 (2010) [
E] with statements from Article 19 [E] and the Centre for Law and Democracy [E]
► African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, Declaration Principles on Freedom of Expression in Africa (2002) [
E]
► Article 19, The Public's Right To Know: Principles on Freedom of Information Legislation (1999) [
E][F]
——, Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information (1996) [
E][F]
► Centre for Law and Democracy (Toby Mendel), Restricting Freedom of Expression: Standards and Principles (2011) [
E]
——, Free Expression (Briefing Notes Series) (2015) [
E]
► Council of Europe, Declaration on the Freedom of Expression and Information (1982) [
E][F]
——, Recommendation No. R (2000) 7 of Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Right of Journalists Not To Disclose Their Sources of Information (incl. Principles) (2000) [
E][F]
► Inter-American Commission on HR, Inter-American Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression (2000) [
E][F][S]
► Joint Declarations of the Representatives of Intergovernmental Bodies To Protect Free Media and Expression [1999-2012] (ed. A. Hulin; Vienna: OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, 2013) [
E]
► Open Government Standards, Draft Open Government Standards/Principles (2012) [
E]
► UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Report [relationship right to access information and right to the truth] (2013) [
E]
► UNESCO, Brisbane Declaration: Freedom of Information-The Right To Know (2010) [
E]
See also: website of the Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights [
E][F][S]

FUTURE GENERATIONS | PAST GENERATIONS
A. De Baets, A Declaration of the Responsibilities of Present Generations towards Past Generations (2004) [
E]
► UNESCO, Declaration on Responsibilities of Present Generations towards Future Generations (1997) [
E][F][S]
——, Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights (1997) [
E][F][S]

GENOCIDE
► UNGA, Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948) [
E][F][S]
► UN, Framework of Analysis for Atrocity Crimes (2014) [
E][S]

HATE SPEECH
See Holocaust; Judicialization of History.

HERITAGE
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954) [
E][F][S]
► UN Special Rapporteur in the Field of Cultural Rights, Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage (2016) [
E]
► UNESCO, Charter on the Preservation of the Digital Heritage (2003) [
E][F][S]
——, Convention on Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970) [
E][F][S]
——, Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972) [
E][F][S]
——, Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003) [
E][F][S]
——, Declaration Concerning the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage (2003) [
E][F][S]
► UNIDROIT, Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995) [
E][F][S]
See also: Cultural Rights.

HISTORIANS
Click here

HOLOCAUST
► European Union (Parliament), The Holocaust, Anti-semitism and Racism (2005) [
E][F][S]
► UNGA, Resolution Condemning Any Denial of Holocaust (2007) [
E]
——, 27 January as Annual International Day of Commemoration To Honour Holocaust Victims (2005) [
E]
——, Holocaust Remembrance (2005): resolution [
E][F][S]; meeting record [E]
See also Judicialization of History.

HUMANITARIAN LAW, INTERNATIONAL
► Customary Rules:“List of Customary Rules of International Humanitarian Law” (March 2005) [
E]
► Documents on International Humanitarian Law [
E] / Dokumente zum Humanitären Völkerrecht (2006) [G]
Geneva Conventions:I (1949) Wounded soldiers on the battlefield [
E][F][S]; II (1949) Wounded and shipwrecked at sea [E][F][S]; III (1949) Prisoners of war [E][F][S]; IV (1949) Civilians under enemy control [E][F][S]; Additional Protocols: I (1977) International conflicts [E][F][S]; II (1977) Non-International conflicts [E][F][S]

IMPUNITY, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL & CULTURAL
► UN Commission on Human Rights, Final Report on the Question of the Impunity of Perpetrators of Human Rights Violations (Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) (1997) [
E][F][S]
► Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Recognition of Responsibility and Reparation for Massive and Flagrant Violations of Human Rights Which Constitute Crimes against Humanity and Which Took Place During the Period of Slavery, of Colonialism and Wars of Conquest: decision 2000/114 (2000) [
E][F][S]; resolution 2001/1 (2001) [E][F][S]; resolution 2002/5 (2002) [E][F][S]

IMPUNITY, POLITICAL & CIVIL | POST-CONFLICT SOCIETIES
► United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Updated Set of Principles to Combat Impunity (2005) [
E][F][S]
——, Impunity: Report of the Independent Expert (2005) [
E][F][S]; Study on Best Practices (2004) [E][F][S]
► United Nations, Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Amnesties (2009) [
E]; Archives (2015) [E]; Mapping the Justice Sector (2006) [E]; Maximizing the Legacy of Hybrid Courts (2008) [E]; Monitoring Legal Systems (2006) [E]; National Consultations on Transitional Justice (2009) [E]; Prosecution Initiatives (2006) [E]; Reparations Programmes (2008) [E]; Truth Commissions (2006) [E]; Vetting: An Operational Framework (2006) [E]
► International Human Rights Law Institute, et al., The Chicago Principles on Post-Conflict Justice (2007) [
E]
► Anneli Sundqvist, "Access and Accountability: Democratization of Information in Post-Conflict Societies (paper, 2008) [
E]
See also: Truth, Right to the

JOURNALISM
► International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), Status of Journalists and Journalism Ethics: IFJ Principles (2003), withIFJ Declaration of Principles on the Conduct of Journalists (1954; 1986) [
E]

JUDICIALIZATION OF HISTORY | MEMORY LAWS | HATE SPEECH
► Article 19, The Camden Principles on Freedom of Expression and Equality (2009) [
E][F][S]
► European Union (Council), Framework Decision on Combating Racism and Xenophobia (2008) [
E][F][S]; with statements from the American Historical Association [E] and the International Committee of Historical Sciences General Assembly,Motion (September 2007) [E][F]
► Liberté pour L’Histoire, “Appel de Blois,”Le Monde (2008) [
F]; Communiqué (2009) [E][F]
► Mendel, Toby, Study on International Standards Relating to Incitement to Genocide or Racial Hatred for the UN Special Advisor on the Prevention of Genocide (2006) [
E]
► Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Rabat Plan of Action on the Prohibition of Advocacy of National, Racial or Religious Hatred that Constitutes Incitement to
Discrimination, Hostility or Violence
(2012) [
E]
Countries

► Amnesty International, Rwanda: Safer To Stay Silent: The Chilling Effect of Rwanda's Laws on "Genocide Ideology" and "Sectarianism" (2010) [
E][F]
► Article 19, Cambodia: Law against Non-Recognition of the Crimes Committed during Democratic Kampuchea: Legal Analysis (2013) [
E]
——, France: French Should Scrap Armenian Genocide Law (2006) [
E][F]; France: No More “Memory Laws” (2008) [E]; France: Senate Must Reject Armenian Genocide Law (2012) [E]; France: Genocide Denial Law Declared Unconstitutional (2012) [E]
——, Russia: Proposed Law Attempts To Regulate History and Memory (2009) [
E]; Memorandum on the Russian Draft Federal Law “On Combating the Rehabilitation of Nazism, Nazi Criminals or their Collaborators in the Newly Independent States Created on the Territory of Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics” (2009) [E]
——, Rwanda: Comment on the Law Relating to the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Ideology of Rwanda (2009) [
E]
——, Turkey: Article 19 Concerned about Continuous Threats to Freedom of Expression (2009) [
E]
► Reporters without Borders, France / Turkey: Genocide Denial: After Victory for Free Speech in France, Turkey's Turn Next? (2012) [
E]

MEMORY LAWS
See Judicialization of History.

MUSEUMS
► International Council of Museums (ICOM), Code of Ethics for Museums (1986, 2001, 2004) [
E]
► Deutscher Museums Bund, Recommendations for the Care of Human Remains in Museums and Collections (2013) [
E][G]

NATIONAL SECURITY
Global Principles on National Security and the Right to Information ("The Tshwane Principles") (2013) [
E]
International Principles on the Application of Human Rights to Communications Surveillance (2013) [
E][F][S]
► UN, Siracusa Principles (1985) [
E]
► Article 19, Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information (1996) [
E][F]

PEACE
► United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Rights of Peoples to Peace (1984) [
E]
Luarca Declaration on the Human Right to Peace (2006) [
E]

POST-CONFLICT SOCIETIES
See Impunity, Political & Civil.

PRESCRIPTION | IMPRESCRIPTIBILITY | NON-RETROACTIVITY | CONTINUITY OF OBLIGATION | TIME BARS
► UNGA, Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes & Crimes against Humanity (1968) [
E][F][S]
► UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, General Comment on Enforced Disappearance as a Continuous Crime [
E]
See also: Legal cases under Honduras: Velásquez Rodrigues.

PRIVACY | PRIVACY INVASION
► European Union, Directive 95/46/EC on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and on the Free Movement of such Data (1995) [
E][F][S]

REPARATION OF HISTORICAL INJUSTICE
► UN Commission on Human Rights, Basic Principles and Guidelines on Right to Remedy and Reparation (2005)[
E][F][S]

REPUTATION | DEFAMATION
► Article 19, Defamation ABC (2006) [
E][F][S]
——, Defining Defamation: Principles on Freedom of Expression and Protection of Reputation (2000) [
E][F]
 
TRUTH, RIGHT TO THE (also: right to know; right to be informed, freedom of information)
► UN Human Rights Council (formerly Commission), Resolution 2005/66 (2005) [
E][F][S]; Decision 2/105 (2006) [E][F][S]; Resolution 9/11 (2008) [E][F][S]; Resolution 12/12 (2009) [E][F][S]; Resolution A/HRC/21/L.16 (2012) [E][F][S]
, Resolution 18/L22: Special Rapporteur on the Promotion of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Guarantees of Non-recurrence (2011) [
E][F][S]
, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Guarantees of Non-recurrence, Pablo de Greiff (2012) [
E]; (2013) [E]; (2014) [E].
► UN Secretary General, Message on the International Day for the Right to the Truth Concerning Gross Human Rights Violations and for the Dignity of Victims (24 March): 2011 [
E]; 2012 [E]; 2013 [E]; 2014 [E]; 2015 [E]
► UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Study on the Right to the Truth (2006) [
E][F][S]; (2007) [E][F][S]; (2009) [E]; (2010) [E]; Report on Archives as Means to Guarantee the Right to the Truth (2011) [E][F][S]
► UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, General Comment on the Right to the Truth in Relation to Enforced Disappearances (2010) [
E] or [E] & addition [E]
► Organization of American States, Resolution (2006) [
E][F][S]; (2007) [E][F][S]; (2008) [E][F][S]; (2009) [E][F][S]; (2010) [E][F][S]; (2011) [E][F][S]; (2012) [E][F][S]; (2013) [E][F][S]; (2014) [E][F][S]
—, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (Office of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression), Right to the Truth [2003‒4][
E][S]
► UNESCO, Brisbane Declaration: Freedom of Information-The Right To Know (2010) [
E]
► UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Report [relationship right to access information and right to the truth] (2013) [
E]
► UN Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, Framework Principles for securing the accountability of public officials for gross or systematic human rights violations committed in the context of State counter-terrorism initiatives (2013) [
E]
► Article 19, Article 19 and the Right to Truth (2009) [
E]
See also: Impunity: Civil & Political

VICTIMS
► UNGA, Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power (1985) [
E][F][S]

WILLS
► UNIDROIT, Convention Providing a Uniform Law on the Form of an International Will (1973) [
E][F][S]