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Title:Legal Decisions Involving History/Historians
Date of publishing:July 29, 2010
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Legal Decisions Involving History/Historians

 

     Disclaimer: The fact that NCH presents the following legal decisions does not imply that it shares the
     views and beliefs of the historians and others mentioned in it.   


     ALGERIA

See France.


ANDORRA

2004: European Court of Human Rights, Pla and Puncernau versus Andorra [E] ♦ [Subject: Last will]


ARGENTINA

1998-2000: Corte Suprema, Aguiar de Lapacó: Sentencia (1998) [S] ♦ Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Aguiar de Lapacó versus Argentina (1999) [E][S] ♦ Updated version (2000) [E][S] ♦ [Subject: Amnesty laws invalid; right to mourn]

2002: Poder Judicial de la Nación, Miguel Brevetta Rodríguez versus Raúl Dargoltz (2002) [S] ♦ [Subject: Defamation charge against historian]

2008: Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Kimel versus Argentina [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation charge against historian]

See also Italy 2000.


ARMENIA

2009: Court of General Jurisdiction of Kentron and Nork-Marash Communities, Ararat Center for Strategic Research versus Caucasus Institute Foundation: claim [E] ♦ [Subject: Denial of Armenian genocide]

2009: European Court of Human Rights, Murad Bojolyan versus Armenia [E] ♦ [Subject: Espionage charge against historian]

See also Switzerland 2007, Turkey.


AUSTRALIA

1982: Supreme Court of Victoria: Pitjantjatjara Council Inc & Peter Nganingu versus John Lowe & Lyn Bender [E] ♦ [Subject: Ownership of slides of secret ceremonies taken by anthropologist]

1992: High Court of Australia: Mabo versus Queensland [E] ♦ [Subject: Terra nullius]

1996: High Court of Australia: Wik Peoples versus Queensland [E] ♦ [Subject: Aboriginal land claims in areas of pastoral leases]

1996: Australian Press Council: Adjudication No. 890 (November 1996); “General Press Release No. 210” (January 1997) [E] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation of historian Manning Clark]

1997: High Court of Australia: David Lange versus Australian Broadcasting Corporation [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation] ♦ See also New Zealand 2000.

2002: Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory: Windschuttle versus ACP Publishing [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation of historian]

2002: Australian Press Council: Adjudication No.1151 (January 2002); Richard Buchhorn versus The Australian [E] ♦ [Subject: Book review about Henry Reynolds, An Indelible Stain? The Question of Genocide in Australia's History]

2004: Federal Court of Australia: Bolton (on behalf of the Southern Noongar Families) versus State of Western Australia [E] ♦ [Subject: Native title determinations]

2014: Administrative Appeals Tribunal of Australia, Fernandes versus National Archives of Australia [E] ♦ [Subject: Access to archival files about Indonesian war crimes in East-Timor in 1981-1982]


AUSTRIA

1986: European Court of Human Rights: Lingens versus Austria [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Less immunity for politicians than for ordinary citizens]

1989: European Commission of Human Rights: B. H., M. W., H.P., G.K. versus Austria [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1994: European Commission of Human Rights: Walter Ochensberger versus Austria [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1996: European Commission of Human Rights: Friedrich Rebhandl versus Austria [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1996: European Commission of Human Rights: Hans Jorg Schimanek versus Austria [E] ♦ [Subject: Glorification of Third Reich]

1997: European Commission of Human Rights: Gerd Honsik versus Austria [E] (partial decision 1995: [E]) ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1997: European Commission of Human Rights: Oberschlick versus Austria [E]  ♦ [Subject: Defamation of political party leader by comparing the latter with a Nazi]

1998: European Commission of Human Rights: Herwig Nachtmann versus Austria [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

2003: European Court of Human Rights: Krone Verlag versus Austria [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]


AZERBAIJAN

2010: European Court of Human Rights, Eynulla Fatullayev versus Azerbaijan [E] ♦ [Subject: Insult of honor and dignity of Azerbaijanis for writings about war crime]


BANGLADESH

See: Pakistan 1973.


BELGIUM

1983: European Commission of Human Rights, T. versus Belgium [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

2012: Tribunal de première instance de Bruxelles, Dino versus Multimédia [F] ♦ [Subject: Right to be forgotten; Internet archives]

See also: Senegal.


BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA

2001: International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Prosecutor versus Radislav Krstić [E]; appeal 2004 [E] ♦ [Subject: Erasure of evidence for genocide]

2006: International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Prosecutor versus Momčilo Krajišnik [E] ♦ [Subject: Destruction of cultural momuments and sacred sites]

2007: International Court of Justice, Bosnia-Herzegovina versus Serbia-Montenegro [E][F] Note: without 11 individual opinions ♦ [Subject: Application of Genocide Convention]


BRAZIL

2010: Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Gomes Lund and others (Guerrilha do Araguaia) versus Brazil [P][S] ♦ [Subject: Guerrilla under dictatorship of 1964-1985)]

[2012]: Associação Nacional de História (ANPUH), O STF não sabe o que é história [P] ♦ [Subject: National Association of Historians asks withdrawal of resolution of Supreme Federal Court about the historical value of the latter's documents]


BULGARIA

1997: European Commission of Human Rights, Panev versus Bulgaria [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

2001: European Court of Human Rights, Stankov and the United Macedonian Organisation Ilinden versus Bulgaria [E] ♦ [Subject: Peaceful assembly of historical association]

2005: European Court of Human Rights, United Macedonian Organisation Ilinden and Ivanov versus Bulgaria [E] ♦ [Subject: Peaceful assembly of historical association]

2006: European Court of Human Rights, United Macedonian Organisation Ilinden and others versus Bulgaria [E] ♦ [Subject: Peaceful assembly of historical association]

2006: European Court of Human Rights, United Macedonian Organisation Ilinden–Pirin and others versus Bulgaria [E] ♦ [Subject: Peaceful assembly of historical association]

2006: European Court of Human Rights, Ivanov and others versus Bulgaria [E] ♦ [Subject: Peaceful assembly of historical association]


CAMBODIA

1962: International Court of Justice, Case Concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia versus Thailand) [E][F]

2011: International Court of Justice, Request for interpretation of 1962 judgment / Request for the indication of provisional measures: Press Release [E]; Summary [E]; Order [E][F]

2013: International Court of Justice, Request for Interpretation of the Judgment of 15 June 1962 in the Case Concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand) [E][F]


CANADA

1990: Supreme Court of Canada, Attorney General of Quebec versus Régent Sioui, Conrad Sioui, Georges Sioui & Hugues Sioui [E] ♦ [Subject: Historical treaty]

1990: United Nations Human Rights Committee, Lubicon Lake Band versus Canada [E] ♦ [Subject: Historical inequities]

1992: Supreme Court of Canada, R. versus Ernst Zündel [E] ♦ 2003: Human Rights Committee, Zündel versus Canada [E] ♦ 2005: Human Rights Committee, Zündel versus Canada [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1996: Supreme Court of Canada, Malcolm Ross versus New Brunswick School District No. 15 [E] ♦ 2000: Human Rights Committee, Ross versus Canada [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1996: Supreme Court of Canada, R. versus Van der Peet [E] ♦ [Subject: Aboriginal rights]

1997: Supreme Court of Canada, Delgamuukw versus British Columbia [E] ♦ [Subject: Aboriginal title; value of oral history]

2002: Canadian Human Rights Tribunal, Sabina Citron & Canadian Human Rights Commission versus Ernst Zündel: decision [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

2003: Cour d’appel de Québec, Turgeon versus Michaud [F] ♦ [Subject: Commissioned history; privacy]

2011: “Settlement of Barrick Gold Lawsuit Against the Authors and the Publisher of Noir Canada” [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Defamatory accusation of involuntary genocide by gold corporation]


CHAD

See: Senegal.


CHILE

2006: Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Marcel Claude Reyes and others versus Chile [E] ♦ [Subject: Freedom of information]

2010: Observatorio para la protección de los defensores de derechos humanos, Chile: Edwin Dimter Bianchi contra Pascale Bonnefoy; Séptimo juzgado de garantía, Santiago de Chile, 14-18 de enero de 2010: Informe de misión de observación judicial (2010) [S] ♦ [Subject: Defamation of army officer by journalist writing about the former's cruelty in 1973]

2013: Inter-American Court of Human Rights, García Lucero and others versus Chile [E][S] ♦ [Subject: Reparation for torture suffered in 1973-1975]


CHINA

2006: United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Tohti Tunyaz versus China [E] ♦ [Subject: Arbitrary detention of historian]

2008: Hangzhou Municipal Intermediate People's Court, Lü Gengsong's Trial Verdict [C] ♦ [Subject: Historian tried for writing on the history of corruption]


CYPRUS

2014: European Court of Human Rights, Cyprus versus Turkey [E] ♦ [Subject: Reparations for human rights violations committed after 1974 occupation]


CZECH REPUBLIC

2002: Human Rights Committee, Alzbeta Pezoldova versus The Czech Republic [E] ♦ [Subject: Confiscation of family property in 1940 without restitution; denial of archival access]

2010: Human Rights Committee, Josef Bergauer et al. versus The Czech Republic [E] ♦ [Subject: Situation of Sudeten Germans after 1945]


DENMARK

2006: European Court of Human Rights, The estate of Kresten Filtenborg Mortensen versus Denmark [E] ♦ [Subject: Taking DNA samples from a dead body and privacy of the deceased]


ETHIOPIA

1999: United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Moti Biyya et al. versus Ethiopia [E] ♦ [Subject: Arbitrary detention of journalists writing, inter alia, books on Oromo history]


FINLAND

1978: Human Rights Committee, Hartikainen versus Finland [E] ♦ [Subject: Classes on the history of religion and ethics]


FRANCE

1967: Cour de Cassation, Charles de Gaulle versus Henry Lémery [F] ♦ [Subject: Defamation of president]

1993: Cour de Cassation, Case of Boudarel, 1 [F] ♦ 1999: Cour de Cassation, Case of Boudarel, 2 [F] ♦ [Subject: Crimes against humanity]

1994: Cour de Cassation, Heirs of Hélène de Portes versus Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber [F] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation]

1995: Tribunal de Grande Instance de Paris, Forum des associations arméniennes de France versus Bernard Lewis [F] ♦ [Subject: Armenian genocide]

1996: European Commission of Human Rights, Marais versus France [F] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1996: United Nations Human Rights Committee, Faurisson versus France [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1997: United Nations Human Rights Committee, Hopu & Bessert versus France [E] ♦ [Subject: Protection of site of a pre-European burial ground in Tahiti]

1998: European Court of Human Rights, Lehideux & Isorni versus France [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Lapse of time after event; apology of war crimes]

2000–2004: Cour de Cassation, Case of Chauvy (2000) [F] ♦ European Court of Human Rights, Chauvy versus France (2000) [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

2002: European Court of Human Rights, Pannullo and Forte versus France: judgment: [F] ♦ [Subject: Return of dead body to family]

2003: European Court of Human Rights, Garaudy versus France [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

2003: European Court of Human Rights, Sobanski versus France [F] ♦ [Subject: Historian accused of crimes against humanity]

2004: European Court of Human Rights, Radio France versus France [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

2004: European Court of Human Rights, Éditions Plon versus France [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation; privacy; Right to mourn]

2006: European Court of Human Rights, Giniewski versus France [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

2007: European Court of Human Rights, Hachette Filipacchi Associés versus France [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Right to mourn; Privacy]

2009: European Court of Human Rights, Ely Ould Dah versus France [F] ♦ [Subject: Amnesty law incompatible with states' duty to investigate torture in Mauritania in 1990–91.]

2009: European Court of Human Rights, J.H. and 23 Others versus France; summary: [E]; judgment: [F] ♦ [Subject: Compensation to orphans of World War II deportees]

2009: European Court of Human Rights, Orban and others versus France; summary: [E]; judgment: [F] (judgment of the court of cassation, 2004: [F]) ♦ [Subject: Legitimacy of torture and summary executions in Algerian war]

2010: Paris District Court, Fondation Franco-Japonaise dite Sasakawa versus Karoline Postel-Vinay [E] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation]

2011: European Court of Human Rights, Girard versus France: judgment [F] ♦ [Subject: Right to bury one's relatives]

2011: European Court of Human Rights, Gollnisch versus France: judgment [F] (judgment of the court of cassation, 2009: [F]) ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

2012: Conseil Constitutionel (Constitutional Council), Decision: Law on the Punishment of Denials of the Existence of Genocides Recognised by Law [E][F][S] ♦ [Subject: Genocide denial]


GERMANY

1971: Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), Peter Gorski versus Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung [“Mefisto case”] [E] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation; Freedom of artistic opinion]

1981: European Commission of Human Rights, X. versus Germany [E] ♦ [Subject: Scattering of ashes; will; Privacy]

1982: European Commission of Human Rights, X. versus Germany [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1990: Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), Franz Josef Strauss versus Stern Magazine [“Coerced democrat case”][E] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation; protection of Personality]

1993: European Commission of Human Rights, F.P. versus Germany [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1994: Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), Federal Examination Office for Literature endangering Young People versus X. [Ugo Walendy] [E] ♦ [Subject: Book ban; Academic freedom of speech, research, and teaching]

1994: Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), “Auschwitz Lie” case [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1995: European Commission of Human Rights, Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands versus Germany [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1995: European Commission of Human Rights, Otto Remer versus Germany [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1995: European Commission of Human Rights, Udo Walendy versus Germany [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1996: European Commission of Human Rights, D.I. [David Irving] versus Germany [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1999–: 1999: European Commission of Human Rights, Hans-Jürgen Witzsch versus Germany [E] ♦ 2005: European Commission of Human Rights, Hans-Jürgen Witzsch versus Germany [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

2001: European Commission of Human Rights, Jürgen Petersen versus Germany [E] ♦ [Subject: Dismissal of history lecturer after German reunification]

2010: Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court), L. versus Oberverwaltungsgerichts Nordrhein-Westfalen / Verwaltungsgerichts Köln: Press release [G]; Judgment [G] ♦ [Subject: withdrawal of journal article about German anti-Semitism during World War II.]

2012: International Court of Justice, Judgement: Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany versus Italy: Greece Intervening) (3 February 2012): press release [E]; summary [E]; judgment [E][F] ♦ [Subject: World War II-based compensation claims against Germany in foreign courts.]

2012: European Court of Human Rights, Peta Deutschland versus Germany: press release [E]; judgment: [E][G] ♦ [Subject: Parallels between concentration camps and animals kept in mass production.]


GREECE

1998: European Court of Human Rights, Sidiropoulos and others versus Greece; judgment: [E]; reply government: [E] ♦ [Subject: Freedom of association for historical association]

See also Germany 2012.


HONDURAS

1988: Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Velásquez Rodríguez versus Honduras [E][S] ♦ [Subject: Successor regimes have a duty to investigate and prosecute]


HUNGARY

2008: European Court of Human Rights, Vajnai versus Hungary [E] ♦ [Subject: Totalitarian symbols]

2008: European Court of Human Rights, Korbély versus Hungary [E] ♦ [Subject: Crime against humanity in 1956]

2009: European Court of Human Rights, Kenedi versus Hungary [E] ♦ [Subject: Historian’s access to state security archives]

2009: European Court of Human Rights, Karsai versus Hungary [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation by historian]

2012: Court of Justice of the European Union, Hungary versus Slovak Republic: Opinion [E]; Judgment [E]; Press Release [E] ♦ [Subject: Inauguration of statue of Saint Stephen by president]

2012: European Court of Human Rights, Fáber versus Hungary [E] ♦ [Subject: Display of flag with historical connotations]


INDIA

1987: Supreme Court of India, Government of Tamil Nadu versus Badrinath [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation of historian]

1988: Supreme Court of India, Ramesh.s/o Chotalal Dalal versus Union of India [E] ♦ [Subject: Television series about:1947 partition]

1994: Supreme Court of India, Ismail Faruqui versus Union of India [E] ♦ [Subject: Demolition mosque Ayodhya]

1994: Supreme Court of India, Mohd. Aslam versus Union of India [E] ♦ [Subject: Demolition mosque Ayodhya]

2002: Supreme Court of India, Aruna Roy versus Union of India, part I [E]; part II [E] ♦ [Subject: School curriculum]

2007: High Court of Judicature at Allahabad, Mukerjee versus Mukheree [E] ♦ [Subject: Hindu temple Varanasi]

2008: High Court of Delhi, Dina Nath Batra and Others versus University of Delhi and Others [E] ♦ [Subject: Article by A. K. Ramanujan about Ramayana]

2010-2014: Supreme Court of India, Dina Nath Batra's Legal Notice to Wendy Doniger & Penguin Books (2010) [E] ♦ Out-of court settlement (2014) [E] ♦ [Subject: Insult complaint against Doniger's The Hindus: An Alternative History]

2010: Supreme Court of India, State of Maharashtra versus James Laine [E] ♦ [Subject: Ban on book about Shivaji]

See also: Pakistan 1973.


INDONESIA

1988: Decision of Attorney General re prohibition of historical novel House of Glass by Pramoedya Ananta Toer [D] ♦ [Subject: Ban on historical novel]

2008: Constitutional Court of Indonesia, Petition of Risang Bima Wijaya & Bersihar Lubis [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation of Attorney General's Office for criticizing its ban of history textbooks]

See also Autralia 2014 (Fernandes), Netherlands 2011 (Rawagedeh case), 2013 (objectors' case), 2014 (anti-Sukarno coup); United States 1994 (Kamal Bamadhaj).


    IRAN

    See United States 2003 (Kerr).


IRELAND

2012: Broadcasting Authority of Ireland Compliance Committee, Complaint by Tom Cooper re An Tost Fada (The Long Silence) television program: complaint [E]; decision [E] ♦ [Subject: Impartiality of television program about 1922 events]

See also United Kingdom; United States 2011.


ISRAEL

1999: Supreme Court of Israel, Giora Szenes and others versus The Broadcasting Authority and others [E] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation; No prior restraint of historical fiction; Freedom of artistic opinion]

2002: Supreme Court of Israel, Teddy Katz versus Alexandroni Brigade [Hebrew] ♦ [Subject: 1948 crimes in Palestinian village of Tantura]

See also United States 2014.


ITALY

2000: Corte di assisi di Roma, Italy versus Carlos Guillermo Suárez Masón and others: judgment and sentence [I]; sentence [S] ♦ [Subject: Murder in 1978 of Argentinian history student Laura Carlotto and others]

See also Germany 2012.


JAPAN

1993: Supreme Court, Case Concerning the Constitutionality of History Textbook Screening [E] ♦ [Subject: History textbooks]

1997: Supreme Court, Case Concerning the Legality of Ministry of Education Opinions Concerning History Textbooks [E] ♦ [Subject: History textbooks]


LATVIA

2008– ♦ 2008: European Court of Human Rights, Kononov versus Latvia [E][F] ♦ 2010 European Court of Human Rights [Grand Chamber], Kononov versus Latvia [E] ♦ [Subject: War crime in 1944; “No punishment without law”]


LEBANON

See United States 2003 (Kerr).


    MALAYSIA

See United States 1994 (Kamal Bamadhaj).


MALTA

2011: European Court of Human Rights, Mizzi versus Malta: Judgment [E] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation]


MAURITANIA

See France 2009.


MOLDOVA

2009: European Court of Human Rights, Manole and others versus Moldova: Judgment [E] ♦ [Subject: Censorship of television and radio station regarding historical items]

2010: European Court of Human Rights, Petrenco versus Moldova: Judgment [E] ♦ [Subject: Former historian defamed by historian]


NETHERLANDS

1994-1995: Arrondissementsrechtbank Groningen, Case Boomsma [D] and Case Schaafsma [D] ♦ Gerechtshof Leeuwarden, Case Boomsma (appeal) [D] and Case Schaafsma (appeal) [D] ♦ [Subject: Novelist drawing defamatory historical parallels in interview]

1994: Gerechtshof 's Gravenhage, Siegfried Verbeke versus CIDI c.s. [appeal] [D] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

1998: European Commission of Human Rights, Middelburg & Van der Zee versus Netherlands [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

2000: Rechtbank 's Gravenhage, 29 World War II veterans & others versus Ministry of Defense & Herman Amersfoort & Piet Kamphuis (two military historians) [D] ♦ [Subject: Defamation; Posthumous defamation]

2003: Rechtbank Amsterdam, Eiseres versus Stichting Digitaal Monument Joodse Gemeenschap in Nederland en gedaagde [D] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous privacy]

2005: European Court of Human Rights, Brinks versus The Netherlands (admissibility of application) [E] ♦ [Subject: Access to internal security service data about him]

2006: Raad van State (Council of State) (Afdeling Bestuursrechtspraak), Hoger beroep van dr. L.J. Giebels [D] ♦ [Subject: Archival access]

2008: Raad van State (Council of State), Advice W05.08.0440/I [D] ♦ [Subject: Obligatory use of the history canon in secundary education]

2008-: Rechtbank Amsterdam, Eiser versus Royal Tropical Institute (2008) [D] ♦ Appeal: (2009) [D] ♦ [Subject: Free expression about history in exhibit]

2008: Rechtbank Dordrecht, Stichting De Grote Rivieren versus Minister van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport [D] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous privacy]

2009: Rechtbank 's-Gravenhage, Marcel Metze versus Staat der Nederlanden (Ministerie van verkeer en waterstaat) [D] ♦ [Subject: Copyright of commissioned history]

2010: Rechtbank Amsterdam, Nina Storms [aka Nina Brink] versus Eric Smit & Prometheus Publishers [D] ♦ [Subject: Unauthorized biography]

2011: Rechtbank 's-Gravenhage, Roel van Duijn versus Minister van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties) [D] ♦ [Subject: Access to secret service files kept on him]

2011: Rechtbank Amsterdam, Van Maasdijk versus Cees Fasseur & Arbeiderspers, Archipel, Balans: Subpoena (14 June 2010) [D]; Judgment (23 March 2011) [D] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation; Invasion of privacy]

2011: Rechtbank 's-Gravenhage, X [9 citizens from Balongsari] & Comité Nederlandse Ereschulden versus Staat der Nederlanden (14 September 2011) [D] ♦ [Subject: Colonial mass murder in Rawagedeh, Indonesia, in December 1947).

2012: Rechtbank 's-Gravenhage, X versus het college van burgemeester en wethouders van Den Haag (22 February 2012) [D] ♦ [Subject: Access to archival records]

2012: Rechtbank Zutphen, Federatief Joods Nederland versus Gemeente Bronckhorst [D] ♦ [Subject: Controversial commemoration]

2012: Rechtbank Haarlem, Jan de Roos versus Minister of Security and Justice: summary [D]; judgment [D] ♦ [Subject: Access to legal records about war criminal]

2012: Rechtbank Groningen, X versus Stichting Universiteitsblad Groningen [D] ♦ [Subject: Erasure of data from digital archives; Right to be forgotten]

2013: Hoge Raad (Supreme Court), review of 1950 judgment on objectors to military service in Indonesia [D] ♦ [Subject: Objectors to military service in colonial Indonesia]

2013: Rechtbank Amsterdam, Nederlandse Loodsencooperatie versus Martijn van Oorschot [D] ♦ [Subject: Copyright of commissioned history]

2014: Raad van State, X versus Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations [D] ♦ [Subject: Information Request about 1950 Failed anti-Sukarno coup]

2014: Rechtbank Amsterdam, X versus Google Netherlands & Google Inc.  [D] ♦ [Subject: Right to be forgotten]


     NEW ZEALAND

2000: Lords of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, David Lange versus Joe Atkinson (& Australian Consolidated Press, publisher of North and South) [E] ♦ See also Australia 1997.


PAKISTAN

1973: International Court of Justice, Case concerning Trial of Pakistani Prisoners of War (Pakistan versus India) [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Genocide in Bangladesh in 1971?]


POLAND

2001: European Court of Human Rights: Kurzac versus Poland [E] ♦ [Subject: Unfair trial under the 1991 law on the annulment of a 1948 conviction for activities aimed at achieving Polish independence]

2002: European Court of Human Rights: Płoski versus Poland [E] ♦ [Subject: Right to mourn]

2004: European Court of Human Rights: Pieniążek versus Poland [E] ♦ [Subject: Duration of defamation proceedings]

2007: European Court of Human Rights: Hösl-Daum and others versus Poland: Statement of Facts [E] ♦ [Subject: Postwar expulsion of Germans]

2011: European Court of Human Rights: Potomska and Potomski versus Poland [E] ♦ [Subject: Jewish cemetery as heritage]

2013: European Court of Human Rights: Węgrzynowski and Smolczewski versus Poland [E] ♦ [Subject: Digital archives; Right to be forgotten]

See also Russia 2011-2012 (Katyń).


QATAR

See United States 2006.


ROMANIA

2000: European Court of Human Rights: Rotaru versus Romania [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Preservation of archival information; Content of closed archives]

2002: European Court of Human Rights: Stănescu & Ardeleanu versus Romania [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

2009: European Court of Human Rights: Association 21 December 1989 Bucarest & Teodor Mărieş & Marin Stoica versus Romania [F] ♦ [Subject: Access to archival files relating to relating to Ceausescu’s overthrow]

2010: European Court of Human Rights: Andreescu versus Romania [F] ♦ [Subject: Access to Securitate archives (CNSAS); Defamation]


RUSSIA

2001– ♦ 2001: United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Igor Sutyagin versus Russia [E] ♦ 2007: Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, “Resolution 1551” [E] ♦ 2011: European Court of Human Rights, Sutyagin versus Russia [E] ♦ [Subject: Arbitrary detention of historian]

2011–2013: European Court of Human Rights, Janowiec and others versus Russia: admissability (2011) [E]; summary of judgment (2102) [E]; judgment [E]; Grand chamber judgment (press release) (2013) [E]; judgment (2013) [E] ♦ [Subject: Treatment of relatives of 1940 war crime victims in Katyń]

2012–: European Court of Human Rights,Mikhail Nikolayevich Suprun versus Russia: application (2012) [E]; application with covering letter [E] ♦ [Subject: Prevention from collecting and disseminating historical information on victims of Soviet repression.]


RWANDA

1998: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Prosecutor versus Akayesu [E] ♦ [Subject: First conviction for genocide]

2003: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Prosecutor versus Nahimana et alii [E]; appeal 2007 [E] ♦ [Subject: Historian convicted for inciting genocide]


 SENEGAL

2009: International Court of Justice, Questions Relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite: Belgium versus Senegal [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Trial of Hissène Habré for past human rights violations]


SERBIA

2009: European Court of Human Rights, Bodrožić versus Serbia [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation of historian]

See also Bosnia-Herzegovina 2007.


SLOVAKIA

2001: European Court of Human Rights, Feldek versus Slovakia [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

2004: European Court of Human Rights, Hrico versus Slovakia [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

2006: European Court of Human Rights, Turek versus Slovakia [E] ♦ [Subject: Access to archival information]

2012: Court of Justice of the European Union, Hungary versus Slovak Republic: Opinion [E]; Judgment [E]; Press Release [E] ♦ [Subject: Inauguration of statue of Saint Stephen by president]


SOUTH AFRICA

2002: Constitutional Court of South Africa, Islamic Unity Convention versus Independent Broadcasting Authority, South African Jewish Board of Deputies, Minister of Communications [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

2002: Hight Court of South Africa, Khulumani Support Group, Shirley Renee Gunn, etc. versus Desmond Tutu, Truth and Reconciliation Commission , Minister of Justice, President of South Africa: affidavit of first applicant [E] ♦ [Subject: Truth commission]

2008: High Court of South Africa (Transvaal Provincial Division), Thembisile Phumelele Nkadimeng and Others versus National Director of Public Prosecutions and Others: Judgment [E] ♦ [Subject: Enforced disappearances; Conflicts of the past]

See also United States 2009


SPAIN

2004: Tribunal Constitucional de España, Descendants of Carlos Trias Bertrán versus Dolors Genovés Morales [S] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation]

2007: Tribunal Constitucional de España, José Fortes Bouzán versus Francisco Javier Sánchez de Dios & Valentín Carmelo Rodríguez Fernández [S] ♦ [Subject: Plagiarism]

2007: Tribunal Constitucional de España [E][S] ♦ [Subject: Constitutionality of penal code article regarding denial and justification of genocide]

2013-2014: Court of Justice of the European Union, Advocate General’s Opinion in Case Google Spain, Google Inc. versus Agencia Española de Protección de Datos, Mario Costeja González  Press release: [E]; full text of opinion: [E]; judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber) [E] ♦  [Subject: Right to be forgotten]


SWEDEN

1988: United Nations Human Rights Committee, Kitok versus Sweden [E] ♦  [Subject: historical rights of Sami indigenous people; Minority rights]


SWITZERLAND

1985: Schweizerisches Bundesgericht, Robert Eibel versus Jürg Frischknecht et. al. [G] ♦ [Subject: No right to forget]

2001: Schweizerischen Bundesgericht, Willi Wottreng versus Präsident des Obergerichts des Kantons Zürich [G] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous Privacy]

2002: Schaffhauser Obergericht, X versus Christoph Schlatter ♦ [Subject: Posthumous privacy] [G]

2006: European Court of Human Rights, Monnat versus Switzerland [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Television documentary about wartime economic collaboration]

2006: European Court of Human Rights, Jäggi versus Switzerland [E] ♦ [Subject: Duration of right to rest in peace; right to privacy in relation to obtaining a DNA paternity test on human remains]

2007-2013: Tribunal d’arrondissement de Lausanne, Cas de Dogu Perinçek [F] ♦ Tribunal féderal suisse, Cas de Perinçek [F] ♦ European Court of Human Rights, Cas de Perincek: Exposé des faits (2010) [F] Judgment (2013): summary [E], full text [F] ♦ [Subject: Racial discrimination; denial Armenian genocide]

2007: European Court of Human Rights, Stoll versus Switzerland [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Publication of confidential report about Swiss strategy concerning compensation due to Holocaust victims.]

2008: European Court of Human Rights, Hadri-Vionnet versus Switzerland [F] ♦ [Subject: Funeral attendance.]

2010: Schweizerisches Bundesgericht, NN versus Oberstaatsanwaltschaft des Kantons Zürich [G] ♦ [Subject: Denial Armenian genocide]


TAIWAN

See United States 1989.


THAILAND

See Cambodia 1962 and 2011.


TIMOR-LESTE

See Australia 2014.


TURKEY

1999: European Court of Human Rights, Arslan versus Turkey [E] ♦ [Subject: Dissemination of separatist propaganda]

1999: European Court of Human Rights, Polat versus Turkey [E] ♦ [Subject: Dissemination of separatist propaganda]

1999: European Court of Human Rights, Okçuoglu versus Turkey [E] ♦ [Subject: Dissemination of separatist propaganda]

1999: European Court of Human Rights, Karataş versus Turkey [E] ♦ [Subject: Dissemination of separatist propaganda]

1999: European Court of Human Rights, Öztürk versus Turkey [E] ♦ [Subject: Dissemination of separatist propaganda]

2000: European Court of Human Rights, Baskaya and Okçuoglu versus Turkey [E] ♦ [Subject: Dissemination of separatist propaganda]

2003: European Communities (Court of First Instance) Krikorian, Krikorian, Euro-Arménie versus European Parliament, EU Council, and EU Commission (Case T-346/03) [E][F][S] ♦ [Subject: Recognition of Turkey’s status as EU member candidate despite its refusal to acknowledge the 1915 genocide against the Armenians]

2007: European Court of Human Rights, Akpinar & Altun versus Turkey: Judgment [E] ♦ [Subject: Desacration/mutilation of corpse; definition of human being]

2010: European Court of Human Rights, Dink versus Turkey: Press Release / Summary: [E] Judgment [F] ♦ [Subject: Right to life & freedom of expression of journalist writing about historical issues]

2010: European Court of Human Rights, Cox versus Turkey: Judgment [E] ♦ [Subject: Armenian genocide]

2011: European Court of Human Rights, Taner Akçam versus Turkey: Statement of Facts (2008) [E] ♦ Press release / summary (2011) [E][F] ♦ Judgment (2011) [E] ♦ [Subject: Freedom of expression of historian; reopening criminal proceedings]

2014: European Court of Human Rights, Dilipak & Karakaya versus Turkey: Press Release / Summary: [E] Judgment [F] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous defamation of army general]

See also Cyprus 2014; Switzerland 2007, 2010.


UKRAINE

2013: European Court of Human Rights: Putistin versus Ukraine: Judgment [E] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous reputation; Right to be forgotten]


UNITED KINGDOM

1995: European Court of Human Rights, Tolstoy versus United Kingdom [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

1996: European Court of Human Rights, Goodwin versus United Kingdom [E] ♦ [Subject: Nondisclosure of sources]

1999: House of Lords, Albert Reynolds versus Times Newspapers and others [E] ♦ [Subject: Defamation]

2000: High Court of Justice Queen's Bench Division, David Irving versus Penguin Books & Deborah Lipstadt [E]; appeal 2001[E]; complete transcripts [E] ♦ [Subject: Holocaust denial]

2009: European Court of Human Rights, Times Newspapers versus United Kingdom; press release [E]; judgment [E] ♦ [Subject: Integrity of a newspaper's Internet archive]

See also United States 2011.


UNITED STATES

1895: United States Court of Appeals, Schuyler versus Curtis and others [E] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous privacy]

1957: United States Supreme Court, Sweezy versus New Hampshire [E] ♦ [Subject: Landmark academic freedom case involving economic historian]

1968: United States Supreme Court, Epperson versus Arkansas [E] ♦ [Subject: Constitutionality of anti-evolution statute; evolutionism versus creationism]

1971: United States Supreme Court, New York Times versus United States [E] ♦ [Subject: Publication of Pentagon Papers (a top-secret history of United States involvement in Indo-China from 1945 to 1968) balanced against national security]

1980: United States District Court (Mississippi), Loewen et al. versus Turnispeed, Mississippi State Textbook Purchasing Board et al. [E] ♦ [Subject: History textbooks]

1983: United States Court of Appeals (Ninth Circuit), Johnson versus Stuart [E] ♦ [Subject: Oregon history textbooks]

1987: United States District Court (Alabama), Smith versus Board of School Commissioners of Mobile County [E]; United States Courts of Appeals (11th Circuit): Appeal [E] ♦ [Subject: Religion in history textbooks]

1988: Supreme Court of New York, Society Survivors Riga Ghetto versus Henry R. Huttenbach extract: [E] ♦ [Subject: Copyright of commissioned history]

1989: United States Court of Appeals (Ninth Circuit), Helen Liu (on behalf of the late Henry Liu) versus Republic of China [E] ♦ [Subject: Assassination of historian Henry Liu (biographer of C.K. Chiang)]

1994: United States District Court (District of Massachusetts), Helen Todd versus Sintong Panjaitan (Plaintiff's Memorandum of Law in Support of Motion for Default Judgment [E] ♦ [Subject: Killing of Malaysian history student Kamal Bamadhaj on Santa Cruz cemetery, Dili, East Timor, Indonesia]

2003: United States Court of Appeals, Schrecker versus United States Department of Justice [E] Amici curiae brief [E] ♦ [Subject: Privacy in records]

2003: United States Court of Appeals (Seventh Circuit), Haynes versus Knopf [E] ♦ [Subject: Public disclosure of private facts]

2003: United States District Court (District of Columbia), Kerr versus Islamic Republic of Iran [E] ♦ [Subject: Assassination of historian Malcolm Kerr]

2004: Supreme Court of the United States, National Archives and Records Administration versus Favish and others [E] Petition for rehearing [E] ♦ [Subject: Posthumous privacy]

2004: United States Court of Appeals (Ninth Circuit), Bonnichsen versus United States [E] ♦ [Subject: Ancient human remains ("Kennewick Man")]

2004: Supreme Court of the United States,Shafiq Rasul versus George W. Bush: Brief Amici Curiae of Legal Historians [E] ♦ [Subject: Habeas corpus]

2004: Supreme Court of the United States, City of Sherrill, New York versus Oneida Indian Nation of New York et al.: syllabus [E] ♦ opinion [E] ♦ concurring judge [E] ♦ dissenting judge [E] ♦ [Subject: Historic Indigenous Land Rights]

2006: Supreme Court of the United States, Garcetti et alii versus Ceballos [E] ♦ Brief of Amici Curiae by Th. Jefferson Center for Free Expression and American Association of University Professors [E] ♦ [Subject: No First Amendment free speech protection for government employees except for scholarship and teaching]

2006: Court in California, Hindu American Foundation and Others versus California State Board of Education and Others [E] ♦ [Subject: Representation of India in history textbooks]

2006:United States Court of Appeals (Fourth Circuit), Brief of Amici Curiae U.S. Criminal Scholars and Historians Advocating Reversal in Support of Petitioners [E] ♦ [Subject: Ali Saleh Kahlah al-Marri (Qatar) “enemy combatant” case]

2008: United States Court of Appeals, Phelps-Roper versus Strickland, Dann, Mason [E] ♦ [Subject: Respect for funeral attendees]

2009: United States District Court for the Eastern District of California, California Parents for the Equalization of Educational Materials (CAPEEM) versus Kenneth Noonan and Others, part I [E]; part II [E] ♦ [Subject: Representation of India in history textbooks]

2009: Circuit Court of the Seventh Judicial Circuit, Volusia County, Florida, Plaintiffs’ Motion for Reconsideration of Order Overruling Objections To Subpoena and for Protective Order Concerning Unpublished Manuscript [by Robert Proctor] [E] ♦ [Subject: Access to historian's unpublished manuscript]

2009: United States District Court Southern District of New York, Sakwe Balintulo etc. versus Daimler AG etc., complaint: [E] ♦ [Subject: Class action under Alien Tort Claims Act against corporations supporting crimes of apartheid]

2009-2010: United States District Court (District of Columbia), Guenter Lewy versus Southern Poverty Law Center and David Holthouse: Complaint (2009) [E]; Memorandum Opinion (2010) [E] ♦ [Subject: Armenian genocide]

2010: United States Court of Appeals (First Circuit), Griswold versus Driscoll [E] ♦ [Subject: Armenian genocide education]

2011-2014: 2011: United States District Court (District of Massachusetts), Motion of Trustees of Boston College to Quash Subpoenas [E] ♦ United States versus Trustees of Boston College, John McNeill, Ed Moloney, Anthony McIntyre: Memorandum and Order [E] ♦ American Sociological Association, Statement by the Council of the American Sociological Associationon the Protection of Human Subjects from the Subpoena of Confidential Belfast Project Research Data (21 February 2012) [E] ♦ Affidavit of oral historian Clifford M. Kuhn (2011) [E] 2012: United States Court of Appeals For the First Circuit, Petitioner versus Trustees of Boston College, Reply brief of Boston College [E] ♦ 2013: United States Court of Appeals For the First Circuit, Petitioner versus Trustees of Boston College, appeal judgment: [E] Oral History Association Response to Developments in Boston College Case (2014) [E] ♦ Website with legal records [E] [Subject: Subpoena to obtain oral history interviews about political assassinations]

2011: Supreme Court of the United States,United States of America versus Antoine Jones: Brief of Amicus Curiae Fourth Amendment Historians in Support of Respondent [E]♦ [Subject: Armenian historical view of Fourth Amendment (protection against unreasonable searches and seizures)]

2011: Supreme Court of the United States, Snyder versus Phelps et al. [E] ♦ [Subject: Respect for funeral attendees; defamation; privacy invasion; intentional infliction of emotional distress]

2012: Court of Appeals of New York, Harbatkin versus New York City Department of Records and Information Services [E] ♦ [Subject: Access of historian to unredacted interview transcripts]

2013: United States District Court (District of Arizona), Curtis Acosta, et al. & Nicholas Dominguez, et. al. versus John Huppenthal, et al. [E] ♦ [Subject: constitutionality of statute to limit race-related Mexican American history curricula]

2013: United States Court of Appeals (Ninth Circuit), Maya Arce, et al. versus John Huppenthal, et al.: Amici Curiae Brief (on behalf of Chief Earl Warren institute on Law and Social Policy and Anti-Defamation League) [E] ♦ [Subject:constitutionality of statute to limit race-related Mexican American history curricula]

2014: American Association of University Professors (Illinois Conference), Finding in the case of  Iymen Chehade [E] ♦ [Subject: Violation of academic freedom of Middle East history lecturer]

2014: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Onondaga Nation and The Haudenosaunee versus the United States: Petition [E] ♦ [Subject: Historic Violations of Indigenous Land Rights]

See also India 2010; Turkey 2010.


URUGUAY

1983: United Nations Human Rights Committee, Quinteros versus Uruguay: interim decision [E]; final decision [E] ♦ [Subject: Right to know (right to the truth)]

1983: United Nations Human Rights Committee, Conteris versus Uruguay [E] ♦ [Subject: Unfair trial & torture of historian]

1987: United Nations Human Rights Committee, Cariboni versus Uruguay [E] ♦ [Subject: Unfair trial & torture of historian]


VIETNAM

See France 1993–.


WESTERN SAHARA

1975: International Court of Justice, Western Sahara (advisory opinion) [E][F] ♦ [Subject: Terra nullius]


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